29/01/2016

享受學術研究及
臨床工作的樂趣 (演講摘要)

享受學術研究及
臨床工作的樂趣 (演講摘要)
蘇冠賓
中國醫藥大學 精神醫學及神經科學教授
醫學研究包括了臨床醫學和基礎研究兩個領域,兩者緊密的結合是醫學進步的基礎。臨床醫師救人助人,受人尊敬而大學教授從事學術研究,滿足對真理和知識的渴求,若能結合「臨床與學術」,想來是所有專業領域中最吸引人的工作。

然而,台灣醫療院所為了因應健保給付及醫院評鑑,不斷擬定經營策略,第一線的臨床醫療人員無不感受到極大的衝擊。同時,台灣因為教育改革,展開全面性的高等教育的整體校務評鑑,對教師在教學和研究的要求也急速增高,使得結合「臨床與學術」的工作變成巨大的壓力。臨床學術工作者多半透支體力、犧牲家庭的生活、甚至付出身心健康。因此,要改善「愈來愈多具教職資格的醫師離開大學醫院;愈來愈多大學醫院的醫師不具教職的資格」的現象,首先要是要從大學醫院的醫師工作和待遇的合理化去改善。
傾聽內在的心聲:「我是否充滿學術的熱情」

在台灣的「學術研究及
臨床工作」環境愈來愈困難的狀況之下,投入者需要有加倍的熱情和決心。學術研究沒有捷徑,這條路不會容易、也不會很快有成就。所以要傾聽內在的心聲,確定自己「是否充滿學術的熱情」。如果確定要必「學術研究及
臨床工作」做為自己的「事業」,那麼台灣學術界仍為有一些難得的優勢,例如:學術自由、相關機會和資訊比過去增加、也比過去公平。而職涯的發展上,你最需要,不是名校或大廟,而是「良師指引和夥伴支持」,並且持續「保有初衷」!

—對臨床科學的初衷—

* 解答臨床疑問、促進醫學進步
* 探討事理的熱忱、追求科學的價值
* 享受學術:結交同好、提攜後進、栽培人才


培養臨床學術研究的「品味」

科學與品味何干?當年Thomson(發現電子,1906諾貝爾物理獎)大學畢業後,向當時的物理學大師 Sir Maxwell(馬士威方程組,証明電磁波、提出光的電磁說)請教未來的研究方向,Maxwel 回答:「Insight into the subject」
。

的確,科學家應該先把「科學」變成生活的態度,再把「學術工作」規劃成「事業」來經營!「問對問題的方向」是學術研究成功的開始,培養研究議題方面的精準,則是來自長期對科學品味培養。畢竟,十年前、今日及未來的科學間題皆不同,要如何培養對科學的直觀洞察力和絕佳的品味?首先從閱讀「有品味」期刊做起。

深入及思考性的閱讀

期刊閱讀是臨床技能茁壯的養分,而對於科學工作者,更學術工作最根本的基礎,從「深入、批判及思考」的閱讀過程中,不但能培養對科學的品味,更能「問對問題,通往成功的研究方向」。這個演講的目的,就是希望以一個「熱愛臨床科學研究 」的過來人,來分享給要開始接觸研究的同學,提供一個「享受期刊閱讀樂趣 」的經驗談。從(1)為何從事臨床學術工作?(2)如何看待本校新的MD/PhD Program?願景?賭注?(3)如何從閱讀中學習洞察問題?(4)如何從閱讀學研究和論文寫作?(5)哪來的經費?哪來的時間?


加強英文能力

* 讀期刊用英文、寫論文用英文、出國報告用英文。
* 排斥英文就要考慮重新規劃科學生涯發展的目標和方向。


享受期刊閱讀的樂趣

為了讓聽眾對切身有關的問題得到討論,我們做了一份簡單的問卷,以下是學員們的問題摘要,都是切中核心的重要議題,也期待講座之後,大家都滿意地得到答案。
  1.  論文的寫作是否關係未來在醫院的升遷? 建議從大一大二開始閱讀論文嗎?如果是,建議閱讀怎麼樣的內容呢? 
  2. 如何寫出好的論文?
  3. 想要寫論文,想必要有實驗數據? 
  4. 如何在臨床工作及醫學研究中取得時間的平衡?
  5. 好奇醫師為何會想做研究,以及對於研究主題的選擇原因等。若之後也想走研究,會建議我們在現階段如何做準備。 
  6. 醫學論文跟一般英文報章雜誌的閱讀有何不同? 如何以最有效率的方式獲得最多最正確的資訊? 
  7. 我不清楚目前所謂的研究是說基於別人尚未完全了解的東西去研究,還是現階段以我們的能力主要是在學會實際操作,做別人以前做過的實驗,學習各種技巧?若是前者,就會覺得自己能力不足,若是後者,就會覺得好像有點無聊....想要知道其他已經參與過這些事情的人最當初的動機還有現在的想法  
  8. 想知道做研究要怎樣找到合適的題目(教授給外要如何找到能繼續研究下去的問題) 讀論文有什麼必看的重點或讀的順序之類的? 
  9. 醫學生在研究方面能及早做哪些準備? 醫學生何時讀研究所較為適當?


從以上五個大綱的討論中,希望能夠回答同學在課前所提出的多項關心的核心議題,更希望能讓同學先把「科學」變成課堂外的生活態度,對科學和醫學培養出深入的見解和良好的「品味」,有再把「學術」規劃成「終身事業」。對於有心成為醫師科學家的同學,兼顧臨床和研究是一條很艱鉅的學術之路,除了思考認真學習「達成目標」,更要能夠「時間管理」、當機立斷,做出「取捨」的抉擇。

2 comments:

  1. ‘I’ll work on it over the weekend’: high workload and other pressures faced by early-career researchers

    https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01914-z

    NATURE 17 June 2019 CAREER COLUMN

    Stress and long working hours are regrettably common among early-career researchers, reveals a survey by the Young Academy of Europe.

    Toma Susi, Shaul Shalvi & Mangala Srinivas


    Scientists face many uncertainties. Their career paths are not always well defined, even when they have secured a permanent position. The part that administrative and teaching duties play, and the time researchers should devote to them, is often vague.

    Such career uncertainties are costly, and burnout rates among tenure-track researchers (those who are on track to a permanent position) seem to be on the rise. Researchers often feel obliged to work long hours, assuming — correctly or not — that this is the norm and the only way to reduce job uncertainty and to increase productivity. ‘I’ll work on it over the weekend’ or ‘I’ll work on it this evening’ have become regrettably common phrases among early-career researchers.

    A survey of members of the Young Academy of Europe (YAE), a pan-European network of early-career researchers, has examined several career factors, including work–life balance, tenure-track requirements and administrative workload. The aim of the survey, carried out in the first half of 2018, was to gain a better understanding of the conditions that researchers face early in their career, and the main challenges. The YAE also wanted to address the general lack of openness in discussing the individual, and highly variable, requirements for tenure across Europe. YAE members were invited by e-mail to participate in the survey, a web-based questionnaire, generating 100 complete replies.


    Time management for scientists

    The YAE has presented the results in meetings with other academies to raise awareness of the issues early-career researchers face and it will host a panel discussion at the group’s annual joint meeting with the Academy of Europe, taking place in Barcelona, Spain, in October 2019.

    The survey suggests that researchers want work expectations to be clear and well-calibrated. The YAE calls on European Union policymakers to require that work hours are realistically calculated, accounting for the full time spent on each task. For example, teaching includes not only standing in front of a class, but also preparation and marking. The requirements should also, ideally, be at least roughly uniform across institutions and countries, which is currently not the case.

    The survey results highlight that simply conducting excellent research might no longer be sufficient for obtaining tenure. Career paths have become ever-more precarious, the age at which researchers obtain a permanent position — if they do at all — is rising ever higher, and research that was, until quite recently, considered ‘excellent’ is now the bare minimum expected. Even researchers that have gained recognition and support through prestigious funding schemes such as the European Research Council’s Starting Grant face uncertainty and stress over their career prospects.

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  2. ‘I’ll work on it over the weekend’: high workload and other pressures faced by early-career researchers

    https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01914-z

    NATURE 17 June 2019 CAREER COLUMN

    Stress and long working hours are regrettably common among early-career researchers, reveals a survey by the Young Academy of Europe.

    Toma Susi, Shaul Shalvi & Mangala Srinivas


    (2ND PART)

    One survey respondent said: “YAE should do something, anything, to help reduce the administration duties of academic faculty. By administration duties I mean the situation where assistant professors spend weeks compiling timetables for sometimes hundreds of students, prepare from scratch and run university questionnaires and polls, are supposed to handle university documentation, etc. This is nonsense! Universities employ hundreds of office staff, but most of the administration and bureaucratic work is given to research faculty!”

    Four main challenges were noted by respondents: the main concern was lack of time, followed by securing a permanent position, obtaining funding, and excessive administration. The survey revealed that people often feel they should work longer than the standard working day. The YAE found that 95% of respondents report working more than 40 hours per week, and of those, 50% worked more than 50 hours, significantly more than their contracts say they should. Although strong conclusions cannot be drawn owing to limited geographical statistics, the data suggest that long working hours are more prevalent outside western Europe.

    How are these long hours spent? On average, only 30% of working time is spent on research. Supervision and administration take up 19% each, whereas teaching occupies 15%. Grant writing consumes 13% of researchers’ time, and the remaining 4% is spent on other tasks. In other words, supervision, administrative tasks, teaching and trying to obtain further funding consumes two-thirds of their time.

    With high workload comes high stress, although the main causes varied widely in the responses. An important stress factor for early-career researchers was the lack of clarity about career opportunities, and, in particular, what is required to get a tenured position. Only one in three respondents felt that they understood tenure requirements at their institution. Many mentioned stress due to colleagues, family and personal issues, but these factors are probably unavoidable. However, it was administration that prompted some of the most bitter comments, some decrying “100% irrelevant” or “excessive and pointless” administrative tasks.

    Finally, despite many of the respondents currently holding or having held large grants, keeping the group funded was a major concern. Such data from people who are doing very well in their field are striking.

    European policymakers should ask young researchers about their needs to create policies that will foster a cooperative and healthy scientific community. As the future of research, young scholars must be better supported.

    Researchers can apply to join the YAE within 12 years of their PhD graduation (with extensions for starting a family or military service), and typically have their own independent research group based in Europe.

    Most YAE members are funded by large and prestigious personal grants. There are currently 200 members, covering most EU states and affiliated countries, across all disciplines.

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